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Justyna Kowalczyk (pronounced [jusˈtɨna kɔˈvalt͡ʂɨk] ([1] listen), born January 19, 1983[1]) is a Polish cross country skier who has been competing since 2000. Kowalczyk is an Olympic Champion and a double World Champion. She is also the only skier who won the Tour de Ski four times in a row and one of two female skiers, who won the FIS Cross-Country World Cupthree times in a row (the other one being Finn Marjo Matikainen). Kowalczyk holds the all-time record for the most wins in Tour de Ski with 14 competitions won and 29 podiums in total.

She is a member of cross country ski department of AZS AWF Katowice and is coached by Aleksander Wierietielny.

ContentsEdit

 [hide*1 Career

Career[edit]Edit

[2][3]Justyna Kowalczyk celebrates the gold medal in the women's 30 km classical event at the 2010 Olympics.

Kowalczyk finished second in the individual sprint at the 2003 World Junior Championships. She finished 31st in the individual sprint event at the 2003 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships. Recently in Canmore, Canada, on Jan 22, 2008, Justyna Kowalczyk won the race for her second World Cup triumph. She followed in Canmore with two more bronze medals in the same World Cup event. Kowalczyk was 3rd in the 2007 World Cup. She has also won eighteen individual events at various distances and levels since 2001.

At the 2009 world championships in Liberec, Kowalczyk won two gold medals, one in the women's pursuit (7.5 km classical + 7.5 km free technique), and another one in the 30 km mass start. She also secured a bronze medal in the 10 km classical event.

She won the overall 2008–09 Cross-Country Skiing World Cup. On March 24, 2009, Kowalczyk was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta.

On February 27, 2010, Kowalczyk beat Norway's Marit Bjørgen by 0.3 seconds to win the gold medal in the women's 30 km classical event in the 2010 Winter Olympics. She posted a time of one hour, 30 minutes, 33.7 seconds. She earned two more medals in Vancouver, taking silver behind Bjørgen in the individual sprint classic on February 17, 2010, and bronze in the 15 km pursuit on February 19, 2010.[2]

The suspension in 2005[edit]Edit

At the 2005 World Championships, Kowalczyk competed but was subsequently disqualified for taking dexamethasone at the Under23 (U23) OPA (Alpine Nations) Intercontinental Cup competition in Oberstdorf, Germany back on January 23, 2005. Dexamethason is a substance that is allowed Out-of-Competition but prohibited In-Competition. It acts as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant. Kowalczyk used the substance to alleviate an Achilles tendon condition.

On June 13, 2005, the FIS Doping Panel issued a two-year suspension (January 23, 2005 – January 22, 2007) for Kowalczyk. In late June 2005 FIS determined that since dexamethasone was a glucocorticosteroid, it was classified as a specified substance on the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances, and therefore the period of ineligibility for the first violation is at a maximum, one year's ineligibility. The FIS Doping Panel therefore reduced the suspension to one year.

Kowalczyk appealed to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) which held that Kowalczyk did not use Dexamethason to enhance her sport performance. However, she acted negligently, but the measure of the negligence did not justify a one-year term of ineligibility. According to CAS, a reduced period of ineligibility ending 8 December 2005 (the day of the hearing) provided the fair and proportionate measure of sanction.

CAS criticised the FIS Doping Panel that their decision excluded any consideration of Kowalczyk's defence that she did not use the substance to enhance her sport performance. According to CAS, Kowalczyk had disclosed and substantiated her defence that Dexamethason was not intended to enhance performance. She had submitted corresponding medical certifications to the FIS Doping Panel as proof of use in alleviating an Achilles tendon condition. Upon Kowalczyk's prima facie showing that her use of the substance was for medical reasons, the burden of proof shifted to FIS to prove the contrary.

Criticism of anti-asthma drugs[edit]Edit

Kowalczyk criticized Marit Bjørgen and other competitors during the Olympic Games in 2010 for using anti-asthma drugs. Bjørgen won five medals in the Olympics, three of them gold.[3] The drug is allowed by FIS if prescribed by an Olympic team physician.[3] Kowalczyk later apologized for the timing of her statements, since the Games were still going on at the time.[3] The asthma medication Marit Bjørgen is using, Symbicort, has since been removed from WADA's list of banned substances.[4]

World Cup victories[edit]Edit

Season titles[edit]Edit

Season Discipline
2008–09 Overall
Distance
2009–10 Overall
Distance
Sprint
2010–11 Overall
Distance
2012–13 Overall
Distance

Race victories[edit]Edit

  1. [4] Otepää – January 27, 2007 – Individual (10 km) classical
  2. [5] Canmore – January 22, 2008 – (7.5 km + 7.5 km) double pursuit
  3. [6] Whistler – January 17, 2009 – (7.5 km + 7.5 km) double pursuit
  4. [7] Otepää – January 24, 2009 – Individual (10 km) classical
  5. [8] Valdidentro – February 14, 2009 – Individual (10 km) classical
  6. [9] Lahti – March 8, 2009 – (10 km) freestyle interval start
  7. [10] Falun – World Cup Final - March 18–22, 2009 – (25 km)
  8. [11] Kuusamo – November 28, 2009 – Individual sprint classical
  9. [12] Rogla – December 20, 2009 – (15 km) classical mass start
  10. [13][14][15] Tour de Ski – January 1–10, 2010 – (60 km)
  11. [16] Otepää – January 16, 2010 – Individual (10 km) classical
  12. [17] Rybinsk – January 23, 2010 – (7.5 km + 7.5 km) double pursuit
  13. [18] Canmore – February 6, 2010 – Individual sprint classical
  14. [19][20] Tour de Ski – January 9, 2010/2011 – (60 km)
  15. [21] Rybinsk – February 4, 2011 – (5 km + 5 km) double pursuit
  16. [22] Rogla – December 17, 2011 – (10 km) classical mass start
  17. [23][24] Tour de Ski – January 8, 2011/2012 – (63 km)
  18. [25] Otepää – January 21, 2012 – Individual sprint classical
  19. [26] Otepää – January 22, 2012 – Individual (10 km) classical
  20. [27] Moscow – February 2, 2012 – Sprint (1.5 km) freestyle
  21. [28] Szklarska Poręba – February 18, 2012 – Individual (10 km) classical
  22. [29] Canmore – December 13, 2012 – Individual (10 km) classical
  23. [30] Canmore – December 16, 2012 – (7.5 km + 7.5 km) double pursuit
  24. [31][32][33] Tour de Ski – January 6, 2012/2013 – (50 km)
  25. [34] Davos – February 16, 2013 – Individual sprint classical
  26. [35] Lahti – March 10, 2013 – (10 km) classical interval start
  27. [36] Drammen - March 13, 2013 - Individual sprint classical
  28. [37] Lillehammer - December 7, 2013 - (10 km) classical interval start
  29. [38] Asiago - December 21, 2013 - Individual sprint classical

Total podiums[edit]Edit

  1. [39] Otepää – January 7, 2006 – Individual (10 km) classical (3. place)
  2. [40] Otepää – January 27, 2007 – Individual (10 km) classical (1. place)
  3. [41] Kuusamo – December 2, 2007 – Individual (10 km) classical (3. place)
  4. [42] Canmore – January 22, 2008 – (7.5 km + 7.5 km) double pursuit (1. place)
  5. [43] Canmore – January 23, 2008 – Individual sprint classical (3. place)
  6. [44] Canmore – January 25, 2008 – (10 km) freestyle interval start (3. place)
  7. [45] Liberec – February 16, 2008 – (10 km) freestyle interval start (2. place)
  8. [46] Bormio – March 16, 2008 – (10 km) freestyle interval start (2. place)
  9. [47] Kuusamo – November 29, 2008 – Individual sprint classical (3. place)
  10. [48] Whistler – January 16, 2009 – Individual sprint classical (2. place)
  11. [49] Whistler – January 17, 2009 – (7.5 km + 7.5 km) double pursuit (1. place)
  12. [50] Otepää – January 24, 2009 – Individual (10 km) classical (1. place)
  13. [51] Valdidentro – February 14, 2009 – Individual (10 km) classical (1. place)
  14. [52] Lahti – March 8, 2009 – (10 km) freestyle interval start (1. place)
  15. [53] Trondheim – March 12, 2009 – Individual sprint classical (3. place)
  16. [54] Trondheim – March 14, 2009 – (30 km) classical mass start (2. place)
  17. [55] Falun – World Cup Final - March 18–22, 2009 – (25 km) (1. place)
  18. [56] Kuusamo – November 28, 2009 – Individual sprint classical (1. place)
  19. [57] Rogla – December 19, 2009 – Individual sprint classical (2. place)
  20. [58] Rogla – December 20, 2009 – (15 km) classical mass start (1. place)
  21. [59][60][61] Tour de Ski – January 1–10, 2010 – (60 km) (1.place)
  22. [62] Otepää – January 16, 2010 – Individual (10 km) classical (1.place)
  23. [63] Rybinsk – January 22, 2010 – Individual sprint freestyle (3. place)
  24. [64] Rybinsk – January 23, 2010 – (7.5 km + 7.5 km) double pursuit (1. place)
  25. [65] Canmore – February 5, 2010 – (10 km) freestyle interval start (2. place)
  26. [66] Canmore – February 6, 2010 – Individual sprint classical (1. place)
  27. [67] Lahti – March 6, 2010 – (7.5 km + 7.5 km) double pursuit (2. place)
  28. [68] Falun – World Cup Final - March 17–21, 2010 – (25 km) (2. place)
  29. [69] Kuusamo – November 28, 2010 – (15 km) freestyle interval start (2. place)
  30. [70] Davos – December 11, 2010 – Individual (10 km) classical (2.place)
  31. [71] La Clusaz – December 18, 2010 – (15 km) mass start (2. place)
  32. [72][73] Tour de Ski – January 9, 2010/2011 – (60 km) (1. place)
  33. [74] Otepää – January 22, 2011 – Individual (10 km) classical (2. place)
  34. [75] Rybinsk – February 4, 2011 – (5 km + 5 km) double pursuit (1. place)
  35. [76] Rybinsk – February 5, 2011 – Individual sprint classical (3. place)
  36. [77] Drammen – February 19, 2011 – Individual (10 km) classical (2. place)
  37. [78] Lahti – March 12, 2011 – (5 km +5 km) double pursuit (2. place)
  38. [79] Falun – World Cup Final - March 16–20, 2011 – (25 km) (2. place)
  39. [80] Rogla – December 17, 2011 – (10 km) classical mass start (1. place)
  40. [81][82] Tour de Ski – January 8, 2011/2012 – (63 km) (1. place)
  41. [83] Otepää – January 21, 2012 – Individual sprint classical (1. place)
  42. [84] Otepää – January 22, 2012 – Individual (10 km) classical (1. place)
  43. [85] Moscow – February 2, 2012 – Sprint (1.5 km) freestyle (1. place)
  44. [86] Rybinsk – February 5, 2012 – (7.5 km + 7.5 km) double pursuit (2. place)
  45. [87] Nove Mesto na Morave – February 11, 2012 – (15 km) classical mass start (2. place)
  46. [88] Szklarska Poręba – February 18, 2012 – Individual (10 km) classical (1. place)
  47. [89] Lahti – March 4, 2012 – Individual sprint classical (3. place)
  48. [90] Drammen – March 7, 2012 – Individual sprint classical (3. place)
  49. [91] Oslo – March 11, 2012 – (30 km) classical mass start (2. place)
  50. [92] Kuusamo – December 2, 2012 – Triple Ruka (2. place)
  51. [93] Canmore – December 13, 2012 – Individual (10 km) classical (1. place)
  52. [94] Canmore – December 16, 2012 – (7.5 km + 7.5 km) double pursuit (1. place)
  53. [95][96][97] Tour de Ski – January 6, 2012/2013 – (50 km) (1. place)
  54. [98] Liberec – January 12, 2013 – Individual sprint classical (2. place)
  55. [99] La Clusaz – January 19, 2013 – (10 km) classical mass start (3. place)
  56. [100] Davos – February 16, 2013 – Individual sprint classical (1. place)
  57. [101] Davos – February 17, 2013 – (10 km) freestyle interval start (2. place)
  58. [102] Lahti – March 10, 2013 – (10 km) classical interval start (1. place)
  59. [103] Drammen - March 13, 2013 - Individual sprint classical (1. place)
  60. [104] Oslo - March 17, 2013 - (30 km) freestyle mass start (2. place)
  61. [105] Lillehammer - December 7, 2013 - (10 km) classical interval start (1. place)
  62. [106] Asiago - December 21, 2013 - Individual sprint classical (1. place)

Stage victories[edit]Edit

  1. [107] Oberhof – January 2, 2010 – (10 km) Classical Handicap Start - Tour de Ski
  2. [108] Cortina – Toblach – January 7, 2010 – Individual (5 km) Classical - Tour de Ski
  3. [109] Falun – March 19, 2010 – (2.5 km) Classical Prologue - World Cup Final
  4. [110] Oberhof – December 31, 2010 – (2.5 km) Freestyle Prologue - Tour de Ski
  5. [111] Oberhof – January 1, 2011 – (10 km) Classical Pursuit - Tour de Ski
  6. [112] Cortina – Toblach – January 6, 2011 – (16 km) Freestyle Pursuit - Tour de Ski
  7. [113] Cortina – Toblach – January 8, 2011 – (10 km) Classical Mass Start - Tour de Ski
  8. [114] Oberhof – December 29, 2011 – (2.5 km) Freestyle Prologue - Tour de Ski
  9. [115] Oberhof – December 30, 2011 – (10 km) Classical Pursuit - Tour de Ski
  10. [116] Oberhof – December 31, 2011 – Sprint (1.2 km) Classical Final - Tour de Ski
  11. [117] Val di Fiemme – January 7, 2012 – (10 km) Classical Mass Start - Tour de Ski
  12. [118] Falun – March 17, 2012 – (10 km) Classical Mass Start - Tour de Ski
  13. [119] Oberhof – December 30, 2012 – (9 km) Classical Pursuit - Tour de Ski
  14. [120] Cortina – Toblach – January 3, 2013 – (15 km) Freestyle Pursuit - Tour de Ski
  15. [121] Cortina – Toblach – January 4, 2013 – Sprint (3 km) Classical Final - Tour de Ski
  16. [122] Val di Fiemme – January 5, 2013 – (10 km) Classical Mass Start - Tour de Ski
  17. [123] Stockholm - March 20, 2013 - Sprint (1.1 km) Classical - World Cup Final
  18. [124] Kuusamo - November 29, 2013 - Sprint Classical Final - Ruka Triple
  19. [125] Kuusamo - November 30, 2013 - Individual (5 km) Classical - Ruka Triple

Additional podiums[edit]Edit

  1. [126] Nove Mesto – December 28, 2007 – (3.3 km) Classical Prologue (3. place) - Tour de Ski
  2. [127] Nove Mesto – December 29, 2007 – (10 km) Freestyle Handicap (3. place) - Tour de Ski
  3. [128] Asiago – January 4, 2008 – (0,8 km) Sprint Freestyle (3. place) - Tour de Ski
  4. [129] Oberhof – December 27, 2008 – (2.8 km) Freestyle Prologue (3. place) - Tour de Ski
  5. [130] Oberhof – December 28, 2008 – (10 km) Classical Handicap Start (3. place) - Tour de Ski
  6. [131] Falun – March 20, 2009 – (2.5 km) Freestyle Prologue (3. place) - World Cup Final
  7. [132] Falun – March 21, 2009 – (10 km) Mass Pursuit (3. place) - World Cup Final
  8. [133] Oberhof – January 1, 2010 – (2.8 km) Freestyle Prologue (3. place) - Tour de Ski
  9. [134] Oberhof – January 2, 2010 – (10 km) Classical Handicap Start (1. place) - Tour de Ski
  10. [135] Oberhof – January 3, 2010 – Sprint (1.2 km) Classical Final (2. place) - Tour de Ski
  11. [136] Cortina – Toblach – January 6, 2010 – (16 km) Freestyle Handicap Start (3. place) - Tour de Ski
  12. [137] Cortina – Toblach – January 7, 2010 – Individual (5 km) Classical (1. place) - Tour de Ski
  13. [138] Stockholm – March 17, 2010 – Sprint 1.1 km Classical (2. place) - World Cup Final
  14. [139] Falun – March 19, 2010 – (2.5 km) Classical Prologue (1. place) - World Cup Final
  15. [140] Kuusamo - November 27, 2010 - Individual (5 km) Classical (2. place) - Ruka Triple
  16. [141] Kuusamo - November 27, 2010 - (10 km) Freestyle Handicap Start (3. place)- Ruka Triple
  17. [142] Oberhof – December 31, 2010 – (2.5 km) Freestyle Prologue (1. place) - Tour de Ski
  18. [143] Oberhof – January 1, 2011 – 10 km) Classical Pursuit (1. place) - Tour de Ski
  19. [144] Oberstdorf – January 2, 2011 – Sprint Classical (2. place) - Tour de Ski
  20. [145] Cortina – Toblach – January 6, 2011 – 16 km Freestyle Pursuit (1. place) - Tour de Ski
  21. [146] Cortina – Toblach – January 8, 2011 – 10 km Classical Final (1. place) - Tour de Ski
  22. [147] Falun – March 18, 2011 – (2.5 km) Classical Prologue (2. place) - World Cup Final
  23. [148] Oberhof – December 29, 2011 – (2.5 km) Freestyle Prologue (1. place) - Tour de Ski
  24. [149] Oberhof – December 30, 2011 – 10 km) Classical Pursuit (1. place) - Tour de Ski
  25. [150] Oberhof – December 31, 2011 – Sprint (1.2 km) Classical Final (1. place) - Tour de Ski
  26. [151] Oberhof – January 1, 2012 – 5+5 km C/F Skiathlon (2. place) - Tour de Ski
  27. [152] Cortina – Toblach – January 3, 2012 – 3 km Classical (2. place) - Tour de Ski
  28. [153] Cortina – Toblach – January 4, 2012 – Sprint (1.3 km) Freestyle Final - Tour de Ski
  29. [154] Cortina – Toblach – January 5, 2012 – 15 km Freestyle Pursuit (2. place) - Tour de Ski
  30. [155] Val di Fiemme – January 7, 2012 – (10 km) Classical Mass Start (1. place) - Tour de Ski
  31. [156] Val di Fiemme – January 8, 2012 – (9 km) Classical Handicap Start (2. place) - Tour de Ski
  32. [157] Falun – March 17, 2012 – (10 km) Classical Mass Start (1. place) - World Cup Final
  33. [158] Oberhof – December 29, 2012 – (3 km) Freestyle Prologue (3. place) - Tour de Ski
  34. [159] Oberhof – December 30, 2012 – (9 km) Classical Pursuit (1. place) - Tour de Ski
  35. [160] Cortina – Toblach – January 3, 2013 – (15 km) Freestyle Pursuit (1. place) - Tour de Ski
  36. [161] Cortina – Toblach – January 4, 2013 – Sprint (3 km) Classical Final - Tour de Ski
  37. [162] Val di Fiemme – January 5, 2013 – (10 km) Classical Mass Start - Tour de Ski
  38. [163] Stockholm - March 20, 2013 - Sprint (1.1 km) Classical (1. place) - World Cup Final
  39. [164] Kuusamo - November 29, 2013 - Sprint Classical Final (1. place) - Ruka Triple
  40. [165] Kuusamo - November 30, 2013 - Individual (5 km) Classical (1. place) - Ruka Triple
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