She was the chief medical physicist at the Saskatoon Cancer Clinic and director of physics services at the Saskatchewan Cancer Clinic. She was a professor of oncology and associate member in physics at the University of Saskatchewan. She was involved in the development of the world’s first Cobalt-60 unit and one of the first nuclear medicine scanning machines.
She was the first woman member of the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada.
From 1986 to 1989 she was chancellor of the University of Saskatchewan. She was the first female to fill this position at the University of Saskatchewan.
She is a past president (1971 to 1972) of the Canadian Ladies Curling Association. In 1986, she was inducted into the Canadian Curling Hall of Fame, as a builder, and was awarded theSaskatchewan Order of Merit. In 1961, she won the very first Diamond 'D' Championships for team Saskatchewan as the third for Joyce McKee.
From 1988 to 1994, she was Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan.
In the 1990s, the City of Saskatoon named a new road named Fedoruk Drive in her honour. Fedoruk Drive runs north of the community of Silver Springs, which honours noted Saskatchewan sports figures in its street names, along with the future Evergreen subdivision, Fedoruk Drive in the future is expected to evolve into one of the major arterial roadways in the northeast sector of the city.
On October 3, 2012 the name of the Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation (CCNI) was changed to the Sylvia Fedoruk Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation in honor of the pioneering work she did in the treatment of cancer using cobalt-60 radiation therapy in the 1950s.